Glossary of Radiological Terms A to L

Alphabetical Listing of Terms:
A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

Absolute risk: the proportion of a population expected to get a disease over a specified time period. See also risk, relative risk.

Absorbed dose: the amount of energy deposited by ionizing radiation in a unit mass of tissue. It is expressed in units of joule per kilogram (J/kg), and called “gray” (Gy). For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.

Activity (radioactivity): the rate of decay of radioactive material expressed as the number of atoms breaking down per second measured in units called becquerels or curies.

Acute exposure: an exposure to radiation that occurred in a matter of minutes rather than in longer, continuing exposure over a period of time. See also chronic exposure, exposure, fractionated exposure.

Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): a serious illness caused by receiving a dose greater than 75 rads of penetrating radiation to the body in a short time (usually minutes). The earliest symptoms are nausea, fatigue, vomiting, and diarrhea. Hair loss, bleeding, swelling of the mouth and throat, and general loss of energy may follow. If the exposure has been approximately 1,000 rads or more, death may occur within 2 – 4 weeks. For more information, see CDC’s fact sheet “Acute Radiation Syndrome” at emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/ars.asp.

Air burst: a nuclear weapon explosion that is high enough in the air to keep the fireball from touching the ground. Because the fireball does not reach the ground and does not pick up any surface material, the radioactivity in the fallout from an air burst is relatively insignificant compared with a surface burst. For more information, see Chapter 2 of CDC’s Fallout Report at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/fallout/falloutreport.pdf .

Alpha particle: the nucleus of a helium atom, made up of two neutrons and two protons with a charge of +2. Certain radioactive nuclei emit alpha particles. Alpha particles generally carry more energy than gamma or beta particles, and deposit that energy very quickly while passing through tissue. Alpha particles can be stopped by a thin layer of light material, such as a sheet of paper, and cannot penetrate the outer, dead layer of skin. Therefore, they do not damage living tissue when outside the body. When alpha-emitting atoms are inhaled or swallowed, however, they are especially damaging because they transfer relatively large amounts of ionizing energy to living cells. See also beta particle, gamma ray, neutron, x-ray.

Ambient air: the air that surrounds us.

Americium (Am): a silvery metal; it is a man-made element whose isotopes Am-237 through Am-246 are all radioactive. Am-241 is formed spontaneously by the beta decay of plutonium-241. Trace quantities of americium are widely used in smoke detectors, and as neutron sources in neutron moisture gauges.

Atom: the smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical reaction.

Atomic number: the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

Atomic mass unit (amu): 1 amu is equal to one twelfth of the mass of a carbon-12 atom.

Atomic mass number: the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

Atomic weight: the mass of an atom, expressed in atomic mass units. For example, the atomic number of helium-4 is 2, the atomic mass is 4, and the atomic weight is 4.00026.

B

Background radiation: ionizing radiation from natural sources, such as terrestrial radiation due to radionuclides in the soil or cosmic radiation originating in outer space.

Becquerel (Bq): the amount of a radioactive material that will undergo one decay (disintegration) per second. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.

Beta particles: electrons ejected from the nucleus of a decaying atom. Although they can be stopped by a thin sheet of aluminum, beta particles can penetrate the dead skin layer, potentially causing burns. They can pose a serious direct or external radiation threat and can be lethal depending on the amount received. They also pose a serious internal radiation threat if beta-emitting atoms are ingested or inhaled. See also alpha particle, gamma ray, neutron, x-ray.

Bioassay: an assessment of radioactive materials that may be present inside a person’s body through analysis of the person’s blood, urine, feces, or sweat.

Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR) Reports: reports of the National Research Council’s committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation. For more information, see http://www.nap.edu/books/0309039959/html/.

Biological half-life: the time required for one half of the amount of a substance, such as a radionuclide, to be expelled from the body by natural metabolic processes, not counting radioactive decay, once it has been taken in through inhalation, ingestion, or absorption. See also radioactive half-life, effective half-life.

C

Carcinogen: a cancer-causing substance.

Chain reaction: a process that initiates its own repetition. In a fission chain reaction, a fissile nucleus absorbs a neutron and fissions (splits) spontaneously, releasing additional neutrons. These, in turn, can be absorbed by other fissile nuclei, releasing still more neutrons. A fission chain reaction is self-sustaining when the number of neutrons released in a given time equals or exceeds the number of neutrons lost by absorption in non-fissile material or by escape from the system.

Chronic exposure: exposure to a substance over a long period of time, possibly resulting in adverse health effects. See also acute exposure, fractionated exposure.

Cobalt (Co): gray, hard, magnetic, and somewhat malleable metal. Cobalt is relatively rare and generally obtained as a byproduct of other metals, such as copper. Its most common radioisotope, cobalt-60 (Co-60), is used in radiography and medical applications. Cobalt-60 emits beta particles and gamma rays during radioactive decay.

Collective dose: the estimated dose for an area or region multiplied by the estimated population in that area or region. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.

Committed dose: a dose that accounts for continuing exposures expected to be received over a long period of time (such as 30, 50, or 70 years) from radioactive materials that were deposited inside the body. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.

Concentration: the ratio of the amount of a specific substance in a given volume or mass of solution to the mass or volume of solvent.

Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD): an organization whose members represent state radiation protection programs. For more information, see the CRCPD website: http://www.crcpd.org.

Contamination (radioactive): the deposition of unwanted radioactive material on the surfaces of structures, areas, objects, or people where it may be external or internal. See also decontamination.

Cosmic radiation: radiation produced in outer space when heavy particles from other galaxies (nuclei of all known natural elements) bombard the earth. See also background radiation, terrestrial radiation.

Criticality: a fission process where the neutron production rate equals the neutron loss rate to absorption or leakage. A nuclear reactor is “critical” when it is operating.

Critical mass: the minimum amount of fissile material that can achieve a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.

Cumulative dose: the total dose resulting from repeated or continuous exposures of the same portion of the body, or of the whole body, to ionizing radiation. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement ” at the end of this document.

Curie (Ci): the traditional measure of radioactivity based on the observed decay rate of 1 gram of radium. One curie of radioactive material will have 37 billion disintegrations in 1 second. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.

Cutaneous Radiation Syndrome (CRS): the complex syndrome resulting from radiation exposure of more than 200 rads to the skin. The immediate effects can be reddening and swelling of the exposed area (like a severe burn), blisters, ulcers on the skin, hair loss, and severe pain. Very large doses can result in permanent hair loss, scarring, altered skin color, deterioration of the affected body part, and death of the affected tissue (requiring surgery). For more information, see CDC’s fact sheet “Acute Radiation Syndrome,” at emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/ars.asp.

D

Decay chain (decay series): the series of decays that certain radioisotopes go through before reaching a stable form. For example, the decay chain that begins with uranium-238 (U-238) ends in lead-206 (Pb-206), after forming isotopes, such as uranium-234 (U-234), thorium-230 (Th-230), radium-226 (Ra-226), and radon-222 (Rn-222).

Decay constant: the fraction of a number of atoms of a radioactive nuclide that disintegrates in a unit of time. The decay constant is inversely proportional to the radioactive half-life.

Decay products (or daughter products): the isotopes or elements formed and the particles and high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted by the nuclei of radionuclides during radioactive decay. Also known as “decay chain products” or “progeny” (the isotopes and elements). A decay product may be either radioactive or stable.

Decay, radioactive: disintegration of the nucleus of an unstable atom by the release of radiation.

Decontamination: the reduction or removal of radioactive contamination from a structure, object, or person.

Depleted uranium: uranium containing less than 0.7% uranium-235, the amount found in natural uranium. See also enriched uranium.

Deposition density: the activity of a radionuclide per unit area of ground. Reported as becquerels per square meter or curies per square meter.

Deterministic effects: effects that can be related directly to the radiation dose received. The severity increases as the dose increases. A deterministic effect typically has a threshold below which the effect will not occur. See also stochastic effect, non-stochastic effect.

Deuterium: a non-radioactive isotope of the hydrogen atom that contains a neutron in its nucleus in addition to the one proton normally seen in hydrogen. A deuterium atom is twice as heavy as normal hydrogen. See also tritium.

Dirty bomb: a device designed to spread radioactive material by conventional explosives when the bomb explodes. A dirty bomb kills or injures people through the initial blast of the conventional explosive and spreads radioactive contamination over possibly a large area—hence the term “dirty.” Such bombs could be miniature devices or large truck bombs. A dirty bomb is much simpler to make than a true nuclear weapon. See also radiological dispersal device.

Dose (radiation): radiation absorbed by person’s body. Several different terms describe radiation dose. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.

Dose coefficient: the factor used to convert radionuclide intake to dose. Usually expressed as dose per unit intake (e.g., sieverts per becquerel).

Dose equivalent: a quantity used in radiation protection to place all radiation on a common scale for calculating tissue damage. Dose equivalent is the absorbed dose in grays times the quality factor. The quality factor accounts for differences in radiation effects caused by different types of ionizing radiation. Some radiation, including alpha particles, causes a greater amount of damage per unit of absorbed dose than other radiation. The sievert (Sv) is the unit used to measure dose equivalent. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.

Dose rate: the radiation dose delivered per unit of time.

Dose reconstruction: a scientific study that estimates doses to people from releases of radioactivity or other pollutants. The dose is reconstructed by determining the amount of material released, the way people came in contact with it, and the amount they absorbed.

Dosimeter: a small portable instrument (such as a film badge, thermoluminescent dosimeter [TLD], or pocket dosimeter) for measuring and recording the total accumulated dose of ionizing radiation a person receives.

Dosimetry: assessment (by measurement or calculation) of radiation dose.

E

Effective dose: a dosimetric quantity useful for comparing the overall health affects of irradiation of the whole body. It takes into account the absorbed doses received by various organs and tissues and weighs them according to present knowledge of the sensitivity of each organ to radiation. It also accounts for the type of radiation and the potential for each type to inflict biologic damage. The effective dose is used, for example, to compare the overall health detriments of different radionuclides in a given mix. The unit of effective dose is the sievert (Sv); 1 Sv = 1 J/kg. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.

Effective half-life: the time required for the amount of a radionuclide deposited in a living organism to be diminished by 50% as a result of the combined action of radioactive decay and biologic elimination. See also biological half-life, decay constant, radioactive half-life.

Electron: an elementary particle with a negative electrical charge and a mass 1/1837 that of the proton. Electrons surround the nucleus of an atom because of the attraction between their negative charge and the positive charge of the nucleus. A stable atom will have as many electrons as it has protons. The number of electrons that orbit an atom determine its chemical properties. See also neutron.

Electron volt (eV): a unit of energy equivalent to the amount of energy gained by an electron when it passes from a point of low potential to a point one volt higher in potential.

Element: 1) all isotopes of an atom that contain the same number of protons. For example, the element uranium has 92 protons, and the different isotopes of this element may contain 134 to 148 neutrons. 2) In a reactor, a fuel element is a metal rod containing the fissile material.

Enriched uranium: uranium in which the proportion of the isotope uranium-235 has been increased by removing uranium-238 mechanically. See also depleted uranium.

Epidemiology: the study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in specified populations; and the application of this study to the control of health problems.

Exposure (radiation): a measure of ionization in air caused by x-rays or gamma rays only. The unit of exposure most often used is the roentgen. See also contamination.

Exposure pathway: a route by which a radionuclide or other toxic material can enter the body. The main exposure routes are inhalation, ingestion, absorption through the skin, and entry through a cut or wound in the skin.

Exposure rate: a measure of the ionization produced in air by x-rays or gamma rays per unit of time (frequently expressed in roentgens per hour).

External exposure: exposure to radiation outside of the body.

F

Fallout, nuclear: minute particles of radioactive debris that descend slowly from the atmosphere after a nuclear explosion. For more information, see Chapter 2 of CDC’s Fallout Report at http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/radiation/fallout/falloutreport.pdf .

Fissile material: any material in which neutrons can cause a fission reaction. The three primary fissile materials are uranium-233, uranium-235, and plutonium-239.

Fission (fissioning): the splitting of a nucleus into at least two other nuclei that releases a large amount of energy. Two or three neutrons are usually released during this transformation. See also fusion.

Fractionated exposure: exposure to radiation that occurs in several small acute exposures, rather than continuously as in a chronic exposure.

Fusion: a reaction in which at least one heavier, more stable nucleus is produced from two lighter, less stable nuclei. Reactions of this type are responsible for the release of energy in stars or in thermonuclear weapons.

G

Gamma rays: high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted by certain radionuclides when their nuclei transition from a higher to a lower energy state. These rays have high energy and a short wave length. All gamma rays emitted from a given isotope have the same energy, a characteristic that enables scientists to identify which gamma emitters are present in a sample. Gamma rays penetrate tissue farther than do beta or alpha particles, but leave a lower concentration of ions in their path to potentially cause cell damage. Gamma rays are very similar to x-rays. See also neutron.

Geiger counter: a radiation detection and measuring instrument consisting of a gas-filled tube containing electrodes, between which an electrical voltage but no current flows. When ionizing radiation passes through the tube, a short, intense pulse of current passes from the negative electrode to the positive electrode and is measured or counted. The number of pulses per second measures the intensity of the radiation field. Geiger counters are the most commonly used portable radiation detection instruments.

Genetic effects: hereditary effects (mutations) that can be passed on through reproduction because of changes in sperm or ova. See also teratogenic effects, somatic effects.

Gray (Gy): a unit of measurement for absorbed dose. It measures the amount of energy absorbed in a material. The unit Gy can be used for any type of radiation, but it does not describe the biological effects of the different radiations. For more information, see “Primer on Radiation Measurement” at the end of this document.

H

Half-life: the time any substance takes to decay by half of its original amount. See also biological half-life, decay constant, effective half-life, radioactive half-life.

Health physics: a scientific field that focuses on protection of humans and the environment from radiation. Health physics uses physics, biology, chemistry, statistics, and electronic instrumentation to help protect individuals from any damaging effects of radiation. For more information, see the Health Physics Society website: http://www.hps.org/.

High-level radioactive waste: the radioactive material resulting from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. This can include liquid waste directly produced in reprocessing or any solid material derived from the liquid wastes having a sufficient concentration of fission products. Other radioactive materials can be designated as high-level waste, if they require permanent isolation. This determination is made by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the basis of criteria established in U.S. law. See also low-level waste, transuranic waste.

Hot spot: any place where the level of radioactive contamination is considerably greater than the area around it.

I

Ingestion: 1) the act of swallowing; 2) in the case of radionuclides or chemicals, swallowing radionuclides or chemicals by eating or drinking.

Inhalation: 1) the act of breathing in; 2) in the case of radionuclides or chemicals, breathing in radionuclides or chemicals.

Internal exposure: exposure to radioactive material taken into the body.

Iodine: a nonmetallic solid element. There are both radioactive and non-radioactive isotopes of iodine. Radioactive isotopes of iodine are widely used in medical applications. Radioactive iodine is a fission product and is the largest contributor to people’s radiation dose after an accident at a nuclear reactor.

Ion: an atom that has fewer or more electrons than it has protons causing it to have an electrical charge and, therefore, be chemically reactive.

Ionization: the process of adding one or more electrons to, or removing one or more electrons from, atoms or molecules, thereby creating ions. High temperatures, electrical discharges, or nuclear radiation can cause ionization.


Ionizing radiation:
any radiation capable of displacing electrons from atoms, thereby producing ions. High doses of ionizing radiation may produce severe skin or tissue damage. See also alpha particle, beta particle, gamma ray, neutron, x-ray.

Irradiation: exposure to radiation.

Isotope: a nuclide of an element having the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.

K

Kiloton (Kt): the energy of an explosion that is equivalent to an explosion of 1,000 tons of TNT. One kiloton equals 1 trillion (1012) calories. See also megaton.

L

Latent period: the time between exposure to a toxic material and the appearance of a resultant health effect.

Lead (Pb): a heavy metal. Several isotopes of lead, such as Pb-210 which emits beta radiation, are in the uranium decay chain.

Lead Federal Agency (LFA): the federal agency that leads and coordinates the emergency response activities of other federal agencies during a nuclear emergency. After a nuclear emergency, the Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan (FRERP, available at http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/doctrine/national/frerp.htm) will determine which federal agency will be the LFA.

Local radiation injury (LRI): acute radiation exposure (more than 1,000 rads) to a small, localized part of the body. Most local radiation injuries do not cause death. However, if the exposure is from penetrating radiation (neutrons, x-rays, or gamma rays), internal organs may be damaged and some symptoms of acute radiation syndrome (ARS), including death, may occur. Local radiation injury invariably involves skin damage, and a skin graft or other surgery may be required. See also CDC’s fact sheet “Acute Radiation Syndrome” at emergency.cdc.gov/radiation/ars.asp.

Low-level waste (LLW): radioactively contaminated industrial or research waste such as paper, rags, plastic bags, medical waste, and water-treatment residues. It is waste that does not meet the criteria for any of three other categories of radioactive waste: spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste; transuranic radioactive waste; or uranium mill tailings. Its categorization does not depend on the level of radioactivity it contains.