Survival and Preparedness
Chapter 6 – Public Preparedness – Emergency Public
feasibility and the priority of getting information to the public
Below, we outline the sources of data that can help answer the question, and then indicate when and how large tsunamis have been for specific regions of the U.S.
What are Tsunamis?
`Tsunamis are ocean waves caused by large earthquakes and landslides that occur near or under the ocean. Scientists do not use the term “tidal wave” because these waves are not caused by tides. Tsunami waves are unlike typical ocean waves generated by wind and storms. When tsunamis approach shore, the behave like a very fast moving tide that extends far inland. A rule of thumb is that if you see the tsunami, it is too late to out run it. Most tsunamis do not “break” like the curling, wind-generated waves popular with surfers. Even “small” tsunamis (for example, 6 feet in height) are associated with extremely strong currents, capable of knocking someone off their feet. Because of complex interactions with the coast, tsunami waves can persist for many hours. As with many natural phenomena, tsunamis can range in size from micro-tsunamis detectable only by sensitive instruments on the ocean floor to mega-tsunamis that can affect the coastlines of entire oceans, as with the Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004. If you hear a tsunami warning or if you feel strong shaking at the coast or very unusual wave activity (e.g., the sea withdrawing far from shore), it is important to move to high ground and stay away from the coast until wave activity has subsided (usually several hours to days). READ MORE
Chapter 1 – Introduction
Chapter 2 – Psychology of Survival
Chapter 3 -Survival Planning and Survival Kits
Chapter 5 – Shelters
Chapter 6 – Water Procurement
Chapter 7 -Firecraft
Chapter 2 – Search and Rescue Operations
Search and rescue (SAR) operations, specifically urban search and rescue (US&R) operations, are anticipated to be critical to lifesaving operations following a nuclear detonation. Initially, US&R operations will be most efficiently and effectively engaged in non-radiologically contaminated areas of the MD and LD Zones by utilizing visual cues and detected radiation. During the early phases of the response, US&R teams should utilize visual cues and detected radiation levels to prioritize operations in the MD Zone. It is not recommended that US&R be conducted in the SD Zone until radiation levels have dropped and the MD zone response is sufficiently advanced. It is recommended that US&R operations not be performed in the DF zone, including where it overlaps the MD and LD Zones, until dose rates have dropped substantially after normally six hours or more.
Chapter 2 – Decontamination of Critical Infrastructure
In the early phase of response, decontamination of affected areas or infrastructure should be limited to those locations that are absolutely necessary to access, utilize, or occupy in order to accomplish the life saving mission. Examples of infrastructure that may need to be decontaminated include public health and healthcare facilities, emergency services facilities, and transportation and other critical infrastructure (e.g., power plants, water treatment plants, airports, bridges, and transportation routes into and out of response areas). Affected infrastructure should be prioritized and radiation exposure rates should be estimated to determine whether postponing decontamination is preferable. Several factors should be considered when assessing the need to decontaminate: